Standard Serial Interface
The serial port is full duplex, meaning it can transmit and receive simultaneously. It is also receive-buffered, meaning it can commence reception of a second byte before a previously received byte has been read from the register. (However, if the first byte still hasn’t been read by the time reception of the second byte is complete, one of the bytes will be lost.) The serial port receive and transmit registers are both accessed at Special Function Register SBUF. Writing to SBUF loads the transmit register, and reading SBUF accesses a physically separate receive register.
Figure 4.1. Standard serial communication
The serial port can operate in 4 modes:
Serial data enters and exits through RxD. TxD outputs the shift clock. 8 bits are transmitted/received (LSB first). The baud rate is fixed at 1/12 the oscillator frequency.
10 bits are transmitted (through TxD) or received (through RxD): a start bit (0), 8 data bits (LSB first), and a stop bit (1). On receive, the stop bit goes into RB8 in Special Function Register SCON. The baud rate is variable.
11 bits are transmitted (through TxD) or received (through RxD): start bit (0), 8 data bits (LSB first), a programmable 9th data bit, and a stop bit (1). On Transmit, the 9th data bit (TB8 in SCON) can be assigned the value of 0 or 1. Or, for example, the parity bit (P, in the PSW) could be moved into TB8. On receive, the 9th data bit goes into RB8 in Special Function Register SCON, while the stop bit is ignored. The baud rate is programmable to either 1/32 or 1/64 the oscillator frequency.
11 bits are transmitted (through TxD) or received (through RxD): a start bit (0), 8 data bits (LSB first), a programmable 9th data bit, and a stop bit (1). In fact,
Mode 3 is the same as Mode 2 in all respects except baud rate. The baud rate in Mode 3 is variable.
In all four modes, transmission is initiated by any instruction that uses SBUF as a destination register. Reception is initiated in Mode 0 by the condition RI = 0 and REN = 1. Reception is initiated in the other modes by the incoming start bit if REN = 1.
Serial Port Control Register
The serial port control and status register is the Special Function Register SCON, shown in Figure 11. This register contains not only the mode selection bits, but also the 9th data bit for transmit and receive (TB8 and RB8), and the serial port interrupt bits (TI and RI).
The baud rate in Mode 0 is fixed: Mode 0 Baud Rate = Oscillator Frequency / 12. The baud rate in Mode 2 depends on the value of bit SMOD in Special Function Register PCON. If SMOD = 0 (which is the value on reset), the baud rate is 1/64 the oscillator frequency. If SMOD = 1, the baud rate is 1/32 the oscillator frequency. Baud Rate mode 2:
In the 80C51, the baud rates in Modes 1 and 3 are determined by the Timer 1 overflow rate.
Using Timer 1 to Generate Baud Rates
When Timer 1 is used as the baud rate generator, the baud rates in Modes 1 and 3 are determined by the Timer 1 overflow rate and the value of SMOD as follows: Baud Rate Mode 1,3
The Timer 1 interrupt should be disabled in this application. The Timer itself can be configured for either “timer” or “counter” operation, and in any of its 3 running modes. In the most typical applications, it is configured for “timer” operation, in the auto-reload mode (high nibble of TMOD = 0010B). In that case the baud rate is given by the formula: Baud Rate Mode 1,3
One can achieve very low baud rates with Timer 1 by leaving the Timer 1 interrupt enabled, and configuring the Timer to run as a 16-bit timer (high nibble of TMOD = 0001B), and using the Timer 1 interrupt to do a 16-bit software reload. Figure 12 lists various commonly used baud rates and how they can be obtained from Timer 1.
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